The Six Orthodox Schools of Hindu Philosophy are a group of philosophical systems that have been recognized as orthodox by scholars and practitioners of Hinduism. These six schools are:
This school of philosophy emphasizes the duality of matter and consciousness, and posits that the ultimate goal of human existence is to achieve liberation from the cycle of reincarnation through knowledge and discrimination of these two principles.
This school of philosophy focuses on the cultivation of spiritual insight and discipline through physical and mental practices such as meditation and ethical conduct. The ultimate goal of Yoga is to achieve a state of union with the ultimate reality or God.
This school of philosophy emphasizes the use of logic and reason to understand the nature of reality and the self. The ultimate goal of Nyaya is to achieve liberation from ignorance and suffering through the acquisition of true knowledge.
This school of philosophy posits that all entities in the world can be classified into six categories: substance, quality, action, generality, particularity, and inherence. The ultimate goal of Vaisheshika is to achieve liberation through knowledge of the ultimate nature of these entities.
This school of philosophy emphasizes the importance of understanding the meaning of the Vedas, the sacred texts of Hinduism, and the proper performance of Vedic rituals. The ultimate goal of Mimamsa is to achieve liberation through the performance of these rituals and the attainment of the rewards promised in the Vedas.
This school of philosophy is considered to be the most influential and important of the six orthodox schools. It is based on the Upanishads, a group of texts that are considered to contain the ultimate teachings of Hinduism. Vedanta posits that the ultimate reality is a non-dual, unchanging, and infinite consciousness, and that the ultimate goal of human existence is to realize the identity of the individual self with this ultimate reality.
All these schools have their own unique perspectives, methodologies and understanding of the ultimate reality and the path to achieve liberation and moksha. They have all contributed to the rich tapestry of Hindu philosophy, providing different paths and perspectives for individuals to understand and pursue spiritual development.