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The Vaisheshika philosophy is one of the six Indian schools of philosophy, which is also known as the "atomistic" school. It was developed by the ancient Indian philosopher Kanada, and its main text is the Vaisheshika Sutras. The date of the composition of this text is uncertain, with estimates ranging from the 6th century BCE to the 2nd century CE.


The Vaisheshika philosophy posits that all things in the universe are made up of atoms, which are eternal and indestructible. These atoms combine to form various substances, such as earth, water, fire, and air. The number and combination of atoms determine the properties of these substances. The Vaisheshika system also posits that there are nine categories of entities in the universe: substance, quality, action, generality, particularity, inherence, proximity, non-perception and negation.


One of the key principles of Vaisheshika is the concept of "cause and effect," which states that every event has a specific cause and leads to specific effects. This principle is used to explain the natural world and the interactions between different entities.


Another important concept in Vaisheshika is the idea of "perception," which is the means by which we come to know the world. The Vaisheshika system posits that perception is a valid source of knowledge, but it also stresses the importance of inference and testimony as sources of knowledge.


The Vaisheshika system also has a strong emphasis on ethics, and posits that the ultimate goal of human life is to achieve liberation from the cycle of reincarnation and attain a state of eternal bliss. This can be achieved through the practice of virtue, self-control, and devotion to God.


The Vaisheshika philosophy has had a lasting impact on Indian thought, and has influenced other Indian schools of philosophy such as the Nyaya and Samkhya systems. Despite its ancient origin, its ideas continue to be relevant in modern times, and it remains an important and influential system of thought in the Indian subcontinent.


In summary, Vaisheshika is an ancient Indian philosophy which posits that all things are made up of eternal atoms, which combine to form the substances in the universe. The exact date of its composition is uncertain and estimates range from 6th century BCE to 2nd century CE. It emphasizes the principles of cause and effect, perception, and ethics, with the ultimate goal of attaining liberation from the cycle of reincarnation. Its ideas continue to be influential in modern times and it remains an important system of thought in the Indian subcontinent.

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