The Doshas are a central concept in Ayurvedic medicine, an ancient Indian system of healing. The term "dosha" literally means "fault" or "imbalance," and refers to three fundamental bioenergetic forces that are said to govern the physical and psychological characteristics of an individual. These three doshas are called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha.
Vata is said to be responsible for movement and circulation in the body, and is associated with the elements of air and space. People with a predominance of Vata energy are said to be thin, light, and to have dry skin and hair. They are also thought to be prone to anxiety and irregular digestion. To balance Vata, it is recommended to include grounding, nourishing foods and physical activity in daily life.
Pitta is said to govern digestion, metabolism, and temperature regulation, and is associated with the elements of fire and water. People with a predominance of Pitta energy are said to have a strong appetite, a tendency to be overheated, and to have sensitive skin that is prone to rashes and sunburn. To balance Pitta, it is recommended to include cooling foods, avoid excessive heat, and to practice physical activities and relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation.
Kapha is said to be responsible for lubrication, stability and growth, and is associated with the elements of earth and water. People with a predominance of Kapha energy are said to be heavy, with a slow metabolism and a tendency towards congestion. They are also said to be calm, and easygoing. To balance Kapha, it is recommended to engage in physically active, heating and stimulating activities, and to eat a diet that is light, dry, and well-spiced.
The Ayurvedic approach to health is centered on maintaining balance and harmony among the doshas, and understanding one's unique combination of doshas (prakriti) as well as the imbalances that may occur in the body (vikruti). The Ayurvedic practitioner assesses an individual's dosha constitution and recommends lifestyle and diet changes, herbal remedies, and other practices such as yoga, meditation, and panchakarma to bring the doshas back into balance and promote health.
To sum up, Doshas in Ayurveda are the three fundamental bioenergetic forces that govern the physical and psychological characteristics of an individual and imbalances in them are thought to be the root cause of any illness. Each Dosha has a different set of characteristics and are balanced by different things such as food, lifestyle and other practices like yoga, meditation and panchakarma.